Qibla: Need to Determine the Right Direction in India
A Brief History of Theory of Evolution
Dr. Syed Abdul Zaheer
Great Opportunity to determine the exact Qibla at any place on May 28, including your homes, in the subcontinent.
The performance of each salah all over the world facing Makkah is Fard or Obligatory as per the Qur’an chapter 7 verse 29. Most of our community is ignorant and always take it for granted that west is our Qibla all over India and even in the other countries. But it is not so, for the South and North India, if one turns west in South India, he will face Yemen, Somalia and in the North India he faces Iraq, Jerusalem (Old Qibla) etc. Please note in a map that the Latitude and the Longitude of Makkah are 210.5 N and 400 East and that of Bangalore are 130 N and 770.5 E.
This fact proves that the direction of Makkah from Bangalore is no doubt West mostly but also a little to the North (about 80) that cannot be neglected. While in the North a little to the South. In central India like Mumbai, Maharashtra, Gujrat, M.P etc., the Qibla is towards West, as the places are located on or close to the latitude of Makkah. It is considered a sin if we do not attempt to determine the right Qibla at a place. As per our Ulema, at least a part of the forehead or the chest should face the Ka’abah. Now the time is ripe to determine the accurate Qibla not only in the subcontinent and other countries within a radius of about 3000 miles or 5000 Kms. from Makkah, but also in your homes and residences, in the parks, jungles, over the hills and mountains even on a sailing ship in the Arabian Sea.
Remember and note down in your diaries:
In India the date is May 28th each year and the time 2-48 pm IST and July 16th each year and the time 2-57 pm IST.
In Pakistan May 28th at 2-18 pm PST and July 16th at 2-27 pm PST and in
In Bangladesh May 28th at 3-18 pm BST and July 16th at 3-27 pm BST.
On these two scheduled dates and timings each year, the sun is exactly on the top of Makkah, that means it is Zawal time there (Midday). Exactly at this time of the date, mark on the floor the line of the shadow, in the clear sunlight of any vertical object like a pillar, a tree, a plumb or vertical rods of a windows in the western wall of a house, Madrassa or mosques. The so marked line of the shadow represents the exact direction of Qibla at that place. This experiment is as per the Shariah and Qur’an chapter 55:5 and at the same time it is purely scientific, as such this method of determining the exact Qibla is most reliable, you will know on to how much deviation one has to make from the West, either North or South.
For Bangalore the angle of deviation is about 190 North from its latitude, any other line situated paralled to this marked line on any side also shows the direction of qibla or 710 from its longitude or North toward the West.
This simple experiment can be performed even 2 or 3 days before or after the above dates and even one or two minutes before or after the above timings, as the error will be very negligible. (See the two figures)
Please inform about this simple experiment to your friends and especially to the teachers in the madrassas and Muslim institutions so that this simple method of determining Qibla can be demonstrated to the students as a practical class, and any error by chance may be corrected.
The Qibla direction may be reconfirmed on July 16th and every year on the same dates and time, as these are perpetual.
The Trigonometric formula to determine the Qibla of any place in the Northern hemisphere is: (for those interested)
Cot A = Cos C x Tan A - Sin C x Cos (D - B)
Sin (D - B)
Where A = Latitude of Makkah
B = Longitude of Makkah
C = Latitude of the Place
D = Longitude of the Place.
( The author is an Islamic Astronomist.
Tel: 0091-80- 6647960.
By Harun Yahya
First and foremost, it has to be noted that the theory of evolution is not a scientific argument, but a dogmatic philosophy and a materialistic world view hiding behind the mask of science. However, it is not faith in this dogmatic philosophy, which has had a stimulating role on the birth and development of modern science, but faith in Allah.
Most of the people who have pioneered modern science believed in the existence of Allah, and while studying science, they sought to discover the universe Allah has created, to see His laws and the details in His creation. Scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, Keppler, Galileo, Cuvier (the father of paleontology), Linnaeus (the pioneer of botany and zoology) and Isaac Newton all studied science by faith. They believed in the existence of Allah and that the whole universe came into existence by His creation. Considered to be the biggest genius of our age, Einstein was another devout scientist who believed in Allah.
Nevertheless, the theory of evolution came into view by the re-awakening of ancient materialistic philosophies and became widespread in the 19th century. This philosophy supposes that matter is absolute and infinite.
This materialistic philosophy does not hold anything to be real except the matter, so it tries to explain the universe and nature through purely material factors. Since it denies creation right from the start, it puts forward that every being, whether animate or inanimate, appeared without any means of creation, but by mere coincidence and then acquired an order.
However, the human mind is organised to comprehend the existence of an organising will wherever it sees an order. Materialistic philosophy, which is contrary to this very basic characteristic of the human mind, produced “the theory of evolution” in the middle of the 19th century.
The Theory of Evolution: Darwin’s Imagination
The person who put forward the theory of evolution the way it is defended today, was an amateur English naturalist, Charles Robert Darwin.
Darwin had never taken a formal biology education. He only took an amateur interest in the subject of nature and living things. His interest drove him to volunteer for boarding on the official discovery ship named H.M.S. Beagle that set out from England in 1832 and travelled around different regions of the world for five years. Young Darwin was greatly impressed by various living species, and particularly by various finches he saw in the Galapagos Islands. He thought that the variance in their beaks was caused by their adaptation to their habitat. With this idea in mind, he supposed that the origin of life and species lay in the concept of “adaptation to the environment”. According to Darwin, living species were not created individually by Allah, but came from a common ancestor and differentiated from each other as a result of natural conditions.
Although Darwin’s hypothesis was not based on any scientific discovery or experiment, in time, he turned it into a pretentious theory with the support and encouragement he received from the famous materialist biologists of his time.
The idea was that the individuals who adapted to the habitat in the best way transferred their qualities to the next generations, and therefore, these advantageous qualities accumulating in time changed the individual to a species totally different from its ancestors. (The origin of these “advantageous qualities” was unknown).
According to Darwin, man was the most developed outcome of this blind mechanism. Darwin named this process “evolution by natural selection”. He thought he had found the “origin of species”; the origin of one species was another species. He published these views in his book titled The Origin of Species: By Means of Natural Selection in 1859. While developing his theory, Darwin was impressed by many evolutionist biologists preceding him, and primarily by Lamarck. According to Lamarck, living creatures were passing the traits they acquired during their lifetime from one generation to another, and were thus evolving. For instance, giraffes evolved from antelope-like animals by extending their necks further and further from generation to generation as they tried to reach higher and higher branches for food.
But both Darwin and Lamarck were mistaken, because biochemistry did not exist at that time and genetics was unknown. Therefore, their theories depended totally on their powers of imagination. While the echoes of Darwin’s book lingered on, an Austrian botanist, Gregor Mendel discovered the laws of inheritance in 1865. These laws refuted the idea of passing the acquired traits onto subsequent generations. Not much heard of until the end of the century, Mendel’s discovery gained great importance at the beginning of the 1900’s. This was the genesis of the science of genetics. Again in the same years, the structure of the genes and the chromosomes was discovered. And in the 1950’s, the discovery of the DNA molecule that includes the genetic information put the theory in a great crisis. The reason was the incredible complexity of the DNA, whose origin could never be explained by any random process. All these developments should actually have caused Darwin’s theory to be banished to the dusty shelves of history.
However certain circles insisted on revising, renewing, and raising the theory up to a scientific platform. All these efforts were very meaningful in indicating that behind the theory laid some ideological intentions rather than scientific concerns.
[Harun Yahya is a well-known writer from Istanbul who has written numerous books and articles on Islam, which includes the marvels of Allah’s creation, the evolution theory, and politics. His study aims to convey the message of the Qur’an, and to encourage people to think on issues such as the existence and the unity of God, and the Hereafter).