By Dr. M. Karim Islamabadi
Darwin himself based his book descent of man, on the basis of structural resemblances between man and apes. He did not say that he had proved it. Just like when he was on the voyage of HMS Beagle on the Galapagos Islands he noticed different finches on neighbouring islands having minor differences from each other. He concluded that all these finches had evolved from a common ancestor. Similarly he noticed resemblances between man and monkey and concluded that both had evolved from a common ancestor.
If structural resemblance is the only criterion then we have a good resemblance with many other creatures as well. The wing of a bat, fin of a whale and arm of a man are bone and similar to each other yet these are totally different from each other and cannot be grouped together.
Similarly, as dissection of the frog’s body is taught to medical students the human beings have system for system, muscle for muscle nerve for nevre and vessel for vessel a resemblance with the frog. But can they be grouped together?
But are we similar to other creatures in features such as locomotive reproductive, respiratory, endocrine genito-urinary, cardiac and central nervous systems? But this does not mean that man and other creatures can be grouped together with a common ancestor.
The Encyclopedia Britanica has criticised the idea of having a common ancestor on the basis of structural resemblance. It says, “In the absence of a fossil record, structural and other adaptations have been projected back as an ancestral condition from living descendent species; but this is a very risky procedure that dismisses morphological transformation and adaptation and assumes stasis without complementary confirmation.”
As far as man’s resemblance with other creatures is concerned the Holy Qur’an says, “There is not an animal on earth nor a bird that flies on its wings but they are all communities like you.”
It is quite easy to understand that man has similarities with other creatures in various body systems although it is at variance with different species, yet man enjoys a unique position. Today there are one million species of animals and two hundred thousand species of plants. Scientists also say that todays’ existing species are just 0.1 percent of the total species that this earth ever witnessed.
It means that 99.9 per cent of species have already died out and became extinct. So, out of the 2 billion species that ever existed on earth why is man the only species which has such a highly developed brain? Why is he the only one who communicates with each other with the help of a complete verbal language. Why do no other species come closer to man in these characteristics? Darwin’s theory is based on natural selection, which means that the evolutionary process takes place only when there is a need for it. For example giraffes grew long necks as they needed to eat the leaves of tall trees.
The question is what was the need which made man to develop so fast and evolve in to such a remarkable intellectual and social creature that he is unmatched by the two billion species which ever existed on this earth.
If, according to Darwin, monkeys and apes had the same ancestors as mankind, then why did they not develop into creatures resembling man. Why did they remain so far behind whereas the environmental conditions and rules of evolution apply equally to all species.
In fact, from the evolutionary point of view man has shown some negative trends as compared to these species. For example, if at all man has evolved from a common ancestor of monkeys and apes, why is a new-born human infant so dependent on his parents for a relatively much longer time, as compared to the offspring of monkeys who are up and about in a much shorter time after birth. Remember that evolution is a process which improves the ability of a species to live in a better manner in an environment. It does not take away the already existing good features.
This obviously means that man and monkey have no link with each other as far as their ancestry is concerned. And here we should not forget that scientists hold the opinion that the human DNA is evolving at a much slower pace than in other species.
Then why is it that a specie which, according to scientists, came into being only a few million years ago, became the most prominent creature of the world, whereas those species which have existed for the past 3.5 billion year are still at the stage of development where they had been before and have not shown any social or intellectual improvement?
If we compare the human being with other species one thing becomes clear; Most other species, such as the monkey, exist in sub-species.
Apes, orang-utans, gorillas all having anatomical differences with each other but there is only one specie, homo sapiens, living in the world. Although there are racial differences, anatomically we are all the same. Humans from all continents have the same bones, vessels, muscles, nerves and other anatomical features and there is no sub-species among them.
This is further proof that man did not evolve as suggested by Darwin but came into being by the will of God. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that his arrival on the earth was not a gradual conversion from apes.