Islamic Voice
Shawwal/Zul-Qada 1422
January 2002
Volume 15-01 No:181

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Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

"O Men, ponder over my words which I now convey to you.
I am leaving you with the Book of God and the Sunnah."

Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon

Mount Arafat

On the 8th day of Dhi al Hijjah, the day of al Tarwiyah, Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) went to Mina and spent the day and night there. There he performed all the prayers incumbent during that period. The following day, the Prophet recited his dawn prayer and at sunrise, proceeded on his camel al Qaswa to the Mount of Arafat followed by the pilgrims. As he ascended the mountain, he was surrounded by thousands of his companions reciting the talbiyah and the takbir. Then he requested some of his companions to put up a tent for him on the east side of the mountain at a spot called Namirah. When the sun passed the zenith, he ordered his camel to be saddled and rode on it until he reached the valley of Uranah.

It was there that while sitting on his camel, the Prophet delivered his sermon to his people. Rabi'ah ibn Umayyah ibn Khalaf repeated the sermon after him sentence by sentence. He began by praising God and thanking Him and then turning to the people, he said: O Men listen well to my words, for I do not know whether I shall meet you again on such an occasion in the future. O Men, your lives and your property shall be inviolate until you meet your Lord. The safety of your lives and of your property shall be as inviolate as this holy day and holy month. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord and that He will reckon your deeds. Thus do I warn you. Whoever of you is keeping a trust of someone else shall return that trust to its rightful owner. All interest obligation shall henceforth be waived. Your capital however is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer inequity. God has judged that there shall be no interest and that all interest due to Abbas ibn Abd al Muttalib shall henceforth be waived. Every right arising out of homicide in pre-Islamic days is henceforth waived. And the first such right that I waive is that arising from the murder of Rabi'ah ibm al Harith ibn Abd al Muttalib. O Men, the devil has lost all hope of ever being worshipped in this land of yours. Nevertheless, he still is anxious to determine the lesser of your deeds. Beware of him, therefore for the safety of your religion. O Men, intercalation or tampering with the calendar is evidence of great unbelief and confirms the unbelievers in their misguidance. They indulge in it one year and forbid it the next in order to make permissible that which God forbade and to forbid that which God has made permissible. The pattern according to which the time is reckoned is always the same. With God, the months are twelve in number. Four of them are holy.

Three of these are successive and one occurs singly between the months of Jumada and Shaban. O Men, to you a right belongs with respect to your women and to your women a right with respect with you. It is your right that they do not fraternize with anyone of whom you do not approve as well as never to commit adultery. But if they do, then God has permitted you to isolate them within their homes and to chastise them without cruelty. But if they abide by your right, then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them for they are your partners and committed helpers. Remember that you have taken them as your wives and enjoyed their flesh only under God's trust and with His permission. Reason well, therefore O Men and ponder my words which I now convey to you. I ma leaving you with the Book of God and the Sunnah of His Prophet. If youo follow them, you will never go astray. O Men, harken well to my words. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not therefore do injustice to your own selves. O God have I conveyed your message?

As the Prophet delivered his speech, Rabiah repeated it sentence by sentence and asked the people every now and then whether or not they had understood the Prophet's words and committed them to memory.

At the end of his speech, the Prophet asked, O God, have I conveyed your message? And the people answered from all corners, Indeed so! God be witness.

When the Prophet finished his sermon, he dismounted and waited until noon, at which time he performed both the noon and the mid-afternoon prayers. He then mounted his camel and proceeded to al Sakharat where he recited to the people the concluding divine revelation: Today I have complted for you your religion and granted you the last of my blessings. Today I have accepted for you Islam as the religion.


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