The First Call to Hajj
Prophet Abraham was ordered by Allah to clean the Kabah for those who
come there to pray, and to call people to Hajj: “Call all people to make
the Pilgrimage, they shall come to you on foot and on the backs of
swift camels; they shall come from every deep ravine.”
Long ago, in a faraway place called Ur in Iraq, a child was born whose name was Abraham or Ibrahim. He was so gracious, tender-hearted and of pure in faith that Allah gave him wisdom when he was still a child. Allah was so pleased with him that he made him His best friend. When Abraham grew up, he became a great prophet, and preached the truth and God’s message in his country. Later he traveled to Syria, Palestine and Egypt. When a beautiful son was born to his wife Hagar, he was ordered by Allah to travel towards Makkah along with his wife and the little child, whose name was Ishmael or Ismail. They all travelled for a long time till they reached a lonely, barren valley, near two small hills called Safa and Marwa. Abraham asked his wife to stay near one of the hills along with little Ishmael, and started to go away. But his wife protested “Why are you leaving us alone here? Are you leaving us here to die?” But Abraham replied, “My Lord has commanded me to do this.” Then Hagar, breathing a sigh of relief, said: “If Allah has ordered you to do so, then He will not let us die.”
After a while, baby Ishmael began to cry for want of water. But there was not a single drop of water to drink. Hagar ran helplessly from one hill to another, but there was no water, nor any human being to give her water. As the baby was crying desperately with thirst and the mother was running from one mountain to another, Allah caused a miracle-a spring gushed forth beneath the feet of Ishmael. When Hagar saw this from a distance, she shouted “Zam-zam (stay, stay!).” Hagar came running and gave some fresh spring water to the thirsty child to drink. And so his life was saved. This spring later on became famous as Zamzam.
Ishmael and his mother began to live in the valley and because of the Zamzam spring more people gradually came to settle in the valley, slowly building up a small town, which was later called Makkah. From time to time Abraham would visit Makkah to meet his family, especially to see his young Ishmael, growing up in the beautiful surroundings of nature-in a lovely valley surrounded by hills, away from the crowded city-away from people of the city who at that time were mostly idol-worshippers.
One night, Abraham dreamt that he was sacrificing his son, Ishmael. This was an order from his Lord. His son was still a child, but Abraham told him about his dream. Ishmael was a brave boy. He was ready to obey the command of God, who had created him. So, without hesitating, he said to his father, “Do what you are commanded, father. Godwilling, you will find me one of the steadfast.”
Abraham took his son away to sacrifice him. As he reached a place, which is now known as Mina-a valley near Makkah, Satan appeared and tried to dissuade him. Abraham picked up a few small stones and threw them at Satan. And little Ishmael and his mother did likewise.
As Abraham took a knife to sacrifice Ishmael, Allah sent the angel Gabriel (Jibril) with a ram. “Sacrifice this ram. Do not sacrifice Ishmael,” said Gabriel to Abraham. Allah was so pleased with this act-the readiness of Abraham to sacrifice his beloved son, that He commanded the believers to observe this day as Id al-Adha, or the Feast of Sacrifice. Every year Muslims sacrifice an animal in remembrance of the great act of Abraham.
Ishmael grew up a strong and loving youth. Abraham and Ishmael were ordered by Allah to build the House of God-the Kabah in Makkah.. Both took stones from the nearby hills and started building the Kabah. As they laid the foundation, they prayed, “Our Lord, accept this from us! You are the All-hearing, the All-seeing.” They also prayed for a prophet to be born in their family who would teach wisdom to the people and purify their faith. Their prayer was answered many years later, when Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh)was born to their descendants.
Abraham was ordered by Allah to clean the Kabah for those who come there to pray, and to call people to Hajj: “Call all people to make the Pilgrimage, they shall come to you on foot and on the backs of swift camels; they shall come from every deep ravine.”
And so Allah made it obligatory for every Muslim male and female to go for Hajj once in a lifetime, provided their means and health permitted. Since then believers from every part of the world go to perform Hajj to fulfill the command of their Lord and to remember the great act of the Prophet Abraham.
Prophet Muhammad's (Pbuh) Hajj
Books do offer guidelines to perform Hajj, but the Prophet’s (Pbuh) Hajj serves as the best example for all Hajis to follow.
Ten years after his migration from Makkah to Madinah, Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh) performed his Hajj, which came to be known as the “Hajj of Farewell.” The Prophet told his followers: “Learn how to perform Hajj, as after this year I may not perform it.” As the news spread around, people from Madinah and nearby areas started assembling there to accompany the Prophet.
On the afternoon of 24, Dhul Qada, 10 AH, the Prophet mounted his she-camel to set out for Makkah. A multitude of people, over 1,00,000 in number, accompanied him. Jabir, a Companion of the Prophet said, “I could see people as far as my eyes could see.” On the way more people joined the caravan. When the Prophet reached a place called Dhul Halifa, he spent the night there and in the morning took a bath and put on ihram, the pilgrims’ dress, made up of two unstitched sheets (women wear normal dress and cover their heads by a scarf). Afterwards he moved towards Makkah saying the talbiyah prayer: “Here I am, O Allah, Here I am at Your service! You have no partner, here I am. All praise, grace and dominion belongs to You. You have no partner.” The multitude joined him in repeating these words. After travelling for nine days, the Prophet reached Makkah on 4, Dhul Hijjah. He first went to the Sacred Mosque. On seeing the Kabah, he said: “O Allah! increase the greatness and sublimity of Your House.” And further added, “O Allah, You are peace, with You is peace. Our Lord, keep us alive with peace.” Afterwards he performed tawaf-going round the Kabah seven times. As he did this, he kept calling upon God: “Our Lord, give us goodness in this world and goodness in the Hereafter, and keep us safe from the fire of Hell.” When he had finished going round the Kabah, he prayed two rakat at the Maqam Ibrahim-the Station of Abraham, and went towards the Black Stone and kissed it. He moved towards Safa, saying that Safa and Marwa were one of the signs of Allah. He went up the Safa hill, till he could see the Kabah. (At that time the hills of Safa and Marwa were outside the Sacred Mosque, but now after the expansion of the grounds, they come within the boundary wall).
The Prophet (Pbuh) walked briskly between the two hills seven times and ended the walk at Marwa. Some of the seven laps he did on camel-back. The Prophet was staying in Makkah at a place called al-Bath. After staying there for four days, he moved to Mina on 8, Dhul Hijjah and the next morning, he moved off towards Arafat. At Arafat, he stayed in a small tent in the Arnah valley. In the afternoon, he rode his she-camel as far as the middle part of the Arafat valley. Here, mounted on his she-camel, he gave a sermon which is known as the Sermon of the Farewell Hajj. Today, at this very spot there stands a mosque by the name of Nimra.
After delivering the sermon, the Prophet performed two prayers together-Zuhr and Asr. After prayers, the Prophet came to the spot in Arafat which known as the “standing place”. Here, mounted on his she-camel, the Prophet prayed till sunset. He said that the prayer of this day was the best of all. The Prophet was praying with divine feelings. He was praying, the people around him were praying, some standing, some mounted on their animals-weeping and crying to their Lord for His favours, vowing for repentance and craving His blessing. It was such a great moment that the Prophet said, “Arafat is Hajj.” He prayed, “O Allah, You are listening to me. You are watching my place. You are aware of my hidden and open affairs. I am miserable and needy, I am pleading to You. Asking your protection...”
After sunset, the Prophet rode towards Muzdalifa. He asked Usama ibn Zayd to ride his camel too. He went on saying Labbayk Allahumma Labbayk-”Here I am O Lord, Here I am”. And the people were chanting the same. The Prophet asked people not to run, but to move slowly and calmly, as running was no work of piety. On reaching Muzdalifa, the Prophet asked his Companion, Bilal to give the call for prayers. There he said the Maghrib and the Isha prayer together. The Prophet took rest at night and in the morning after praying, he went towards a place called Mashar Haram.. Before sunrise, the Prophet left Muzdalifah for Mina, after taking seven small pebbles from there. On the way, passing through the valley of Muhssar, he asked people to move fast, as this was the place, where the People of the Elephant, who came to destroy the Kabah, were punished by Allah. This incident happened in the year in which the Prophet was born. Riding on, he reached the Jamarah, the three pillars at Mina, at which he cast seven pebbles, saying Allahu Akbar each time. The Prophet gave his second sermon at Mina, which was similar to the previous one at Arafat. Afterwards the Prophet offered his sacrifices, shaved his head and took off the ihram-the pilgrims’ dress. That was the day of the feast-(today we remember that day as Id al-Adha).
On the same day, the Prophet (Pbuh) rode to Makkah performed tawaf, drank water at Zamzam and returned to Mina. At Mina, the Prophet spent three more days for the throwing of stones. Then he moved to Makkah, where he stayed in a tent and slept briefly. Before the morning prayer, he went to the Sacred Mosque and performed the tawaf of Farewell. The Prophet stayed in Makkah during Hajj for 10 days. Afterwards he left for Madinah. At a place called, Dhul Halifa he rested for the night, and at the sunrise, entered his beloved city, Madinah.
The Hajj Check List
* Preparations for Hajj should normally start immediately after filling up of forms. Baggage should be light and you should bring suitcases of normal size that are easy to handle. You must put identification marks (name and address of the pilgrims) on them. Subsequently, the pilgrim pass number of the pilgrim should also be added to the identification marks on the luggage.
* Identification should be in the form of tags attached to the baggage and also details written on the baggage itself with an appropriate coloured indelible ink pen. Avoid taking gunny bags, sacks and other loose material. Suit cases should not have any pouches on the outside.
* Find out the weight of free baggage allowed on your plane. You must be careful to take less baggage since you would be carrying a number of items back from Saudi Arabia like dates (khajur), prayer mats (janamaz), zam-zam water, other assorted items like prayer caps (topi), prayer beads (Tasbeeh), etc. and such other items that you may wish to buy as gifts or for your own use.
* Banned items in Saudi Arabia: Get to know of the items that are banned in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia before packing your luggage. If you are bringing medicine for your personal use, you should bring the doctor’s prescription in original with you, otherwise medicine will be confiscated. Do not bring cooking oil, kerosene, flour, perishable items or other stuff that the customs officials may have objection to or may have problems in identifying.
* Do not carry any gift or packet given to you by any one, not even by your relatives and friends. If carrying such a thing becomes essential then you must thoroughly inspect the packet that you are to carry since you will be personally held responsible and liable if it contains any objectionable thing. Please remember that even magazines, photographs, books and religious literature as also audio and video cassettes may be confiscated at the customs. Drugs invoke the death penalty. Liquor is banned.
* Meningitis Vaccination: Remember to take your Meningitis vaccination at least 10 days before embarkation and to keep the certificate along with a photocopy of the same. (The original with you and the photocopy in your luggage).
* Luggage and Baggage: All items of baggage should be marked before departure by tags and writings which should include at least the name of the pilgrim and the pilgrim pass number.
* Ensure Safety of Documents: Please ensure that photocopies of your pilgrim pass, your Meningitis certificate, your bank draft, your ticket and other necessary documents like doctor’s prescription, etc. are kept in a separate folder in your luggage. The original pilgrim pass, Meningitis certificate, bank draft, ticket and other essential papers should be carried by you on your person in the hand baggage that you are carrying and this hand baggage should also be properly marked for identification.
* You must also ensure that you have a proper place to stay at this embarkation point. If you are advanced in age, you must have a companion accompanying you from home till this embarkation airport. Get photocopies of all your medical records, purchase your medicine and get the doctor’s prescription for the same. Purchase necessary items like pyjamas, kurtas, shirts, lungis, underwears, slippers, shoes, caps, sweaters, blankets, toilet mug (lota), water bottle, soap, toothpaste, toothbrush, comb, socks, handkerchief and such items that are necessary for your journey.
* Your rooms in Makkah and Madinah and the tents in Mina may be air-conditioned and hence you will feel cold, especially during night. Even in the Haram Sharief at Makkah and Madinah, most of the portion is air-conditioned
* It is advisable to carry enough money with you as after you arrive at the Haj Terminal in Jeddah, you may have to wait for a long time. So the money will be useful to buy food to sustain you till you are board the buses to Makkah from Jeddah. Most Hajis hand over their entire money to the guides or tour operators. Keep ready cash in hand with you in yoru purse always. This will come in good use even on your return journey back from Hajj at the Jeddah airport where you may have to wait till all formalities are over. You can use the money to buy your meals.
* People who have performed their Hajj have reported that often at Makkah and Madinah during the Fajr prayers and during the Farz rakats, the Imam on Fridays recites verses from the Quran which command the worshipper to perform Sajdah. Unlike in India, where the Imam informs the jamaat that there is a sajdah for a specific verse, in Haram, congregation is not told about the sajdah as it is assumed that all worshippers know the Quranic verse involves sajdah. So pilgrims from India need to be extra alert and follow the Imam while he goes into sajdah after reciting the surah
* Buy and keep a few cards. They avoid hassles for change. Some Indian pilgrims who use the brick or mud pellets for drying urine, carry them to flight toilets. These will surely choke the toilets and make them unusable for others. Such practices must be avoided. Use tissue paper instead. It is available in plenty on the plane.
* Use the places meant for specific purpose for the same purpose. For example, ·Do not make wuzu at Zamzam closets inside the Masjid e Haram. These closets are for drinking. ·Do not take bath at underground Zam-zam well. You can however pour water over head and drench your Ihram. ·Do not wash clothes at toilets in Mina or Arafaat. Washing can be postponed till your return to Makkah. ·
* Get your head shaved only at the Barber’s saloons. The unauthorized Pakistani barbers may offer a concessional head shave at SR5 beneath the Jamaraat bridge. Avoid them. Because police whisks them away every now and then. If you engage them it is possible you will be left with half shaven head. Do not carry gas or oil stoves to tent cities. They are hazardous. Buy cooked food.
* At Arafaat muallim and philanthropists distribute food packets. Avoid smoking inside tents. Buying Qurbani coupons of IDB is the easiest way to discharge your obligation to sacrifice. This meat is hygienically packed and sent to people in distress in different countries. This way you will also be contributing to a cause.
* Do not panic in times of emergencies. Mark the exit routes in advance. Fire is the greatest hazard. Take care of the old, infirm people and women. They are more vulnerable in such situation than others. Memorize every place, location or camp that is assigned to you for stay. Remember them in relation to the shops around, numbers inscribed or colours of signboards.
* Muzdalifah is usually the place where people get severed from their families or groups. Remember the route you take while going to toilets during the nightly stay at Muzdalifah. Traffic moves ‘always from right’ in Saudi Arabia. When you are crossing the road, look towards your left for incoming vehicles. Most pilgrims get hurt because they do not care for the local rule.
* Carry tablets for common ailments such as diarrhoea, fever, cold, pain etc. Saudi chemists dispense medicine only in packets. Tablets distributed by Indian dispensaries are generally of poor quality. Do not use tap water supplied in buildings for drinking anywhere on the pilgrimage route. This will cause you stomach problems. Either drink zam zam in the Haram Sharief or buy bottled water from the market.
* Makkah Municipality has erected zam zam water closets at various street corners for the convenience of pilgrims. Water can be stored from these closets. Often bottled water is distributed free of cost by philanthropists.
* Certain rites and rituals may be prescribed with particular schedules, for instance, stoning at Jamaraat may be preferred (afzal) during prescribed hours. But this may lead to over crowding and stampede. Do not insist on afzal schedule but look for convenience. Allah does not want pilgrims to risk their lives or incur injuries.
Hajj -Step By Step
1. Ihram at Meeqat.
2. (i) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah (Declaration of Intention) and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj and Umrah combined (Qiran) or
ii) Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Umrah only (Tamattu) or
iii) Two Rakat Nafil and Niyah and Talbiyah must be performed for Hajj only (Ifraad).
3. Tawaf Qudoom in Makkah (Arrival Tawaf).
4. Two Rakats Nafil /Drink Zamzam.
i) For Qiran maintain Ihram until Hajj.
ii) For Tamathu one can come out of Ihram.
8th Dhul Hijjah
6.Ihram from Makkah
i) For those residing in Makkah, Ihram is from place of residence.
7. Two Rakats Nafil and Niyah for Hajj and Talbiyah.
8. Arrival in Mina before Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha prayers and Fajr Prayer of 9 Dhul Hijjah.
9th Dhul Hijjah
9. After Fajr prayer, arrival at Arafat.
10. Zuhr, Asr shortened and combined in Nimra Mosque or wherever the tents have been put up in the camps.
11. Standing at Arafat, after sunset, departure to Muzdalifah without performing Maghrib prayer at Arafat.
12. Arrival at Muzdalifah, delayed Maghrib and Isha prayers with one Azan and two Iqamats combined. (Isha shortened)
13. Collect pebbles for Rami of Jamra.. Pebbles may also be collected in Mina.
10th Dhul Hijjah
14. Arrival at Mina after Fajr prayer in Muzdalifah.
15. Lapidation (Rami) at Jamra Aqaba (Big Satan) before sun is past meridian.
16. Sacrifice animal. One lamb or sheep per person. Camel and cow can be shared by 7 persons .
17.Haircut or shaving of head.
18. Come out of Ihram.
19. Tawaf Ifadah / Ziarah
11th Dhul Hijjah
20. Lapidation (Rami) at all the Three Jamarat after the sun is past meridian (seven pebbles at each jamra)
21. Stay in Mina
12th Dhul Hijjah
22. Lapidation to be repeated as on 11 Dhul Hijjjah
23. Leave Mina before sunset perform Tawaf Ifadah if not performed yet.
13th Dhul Hijjah
24. If sunsets in Mina, stay there and do lapidation as on the previous two days after the sun is past meridian, leave Mina for home.
25. Tawaf Wida (Farewell Tawaf) when leaving Makkah for Madinah or home country.
Pilgrims are also recommended to repeat the traditional phrase declaring that they are responding to Allah’s call for them to offer the pilgrimage and complete it. They repeat these phrases as they go into Ihram. Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik Laa Shareeka Laka Labbaik Innal Hamda Wannimata laka walmulk Laa Shareeka Lak “I respond to Your call my Lord I respond to You, there is no diety save You. All praise, grace and dominion belong to You. You have no partners.” Men should utter this aloud while women should say it silently. Repeat this Talbiyyah frequently, and engage in the praise of Allah, in supplication for forgiveness, and in the enjoining of what is good and the forbidding of what is evil.
Essentials of pilgrimage
There are four essentials of pilgrimage which must be done for it to be valid. Omitting anyone of these will invalidate one’s pilgrimage. These are:
2. Attendance at Arafat at the specified time
3. The Tawaf of ifaadah and
4. Sa’ie between Safah and Marwah
5. A fifth essential is added by Al-Shafie school of thought, which is to shave one’s head (for men only) or to shorten one’s hair.
Restrictions of Ihram In the state of Ihram the following acts are forbidden.
1) To cut or shave the hairs of head or body, till the sacrifice of animals is completed.
2) To cut the nails.
3) To wear stitched clothes (for men only).
4) To wear turban or cap or anything which covers the heads (for men only).
5) To wear shoes or socks above the ankle.
6) To apply perfume.
7) To cover the face
8) To perform Nikah or to arrange for Nikah.
9) To hunt animals.
10) To fight or quarrel.
11) To have sex,
Women in Hajj
Performing Hajj without Mahram forbidden According to Nusrat Ibn Abbas, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) has said that no woman should make a journey without a Mahram. On hearing this, one person said “O Prophet (Pbuh), my name has been included in Jihad and my wife has left for the Hajj pilgrimage.” The Prophet (Pbuh) replied: “Go and perform the Hajj with your wife”. (Mishkat) Mahram means a person with whom a marriage is not possible, example father, son, nephew, son-in-law, paternal uncle and maternal uncle. Paternal cousins and maternal cousins cannot be Mahram because marriage can be consummated with them. Mahram is such a person with whom one may not experience feelings which are natural only to a married state. Some women consider anyone as brother or son for the sake of making a journey. This is not allowed by Shariat. In the performance of the holy rites of Hajj to break Shariat law and perform the Hajj is clearly a sin and considered as haram. This is because from beginning to the end it is a violation of the Shariat. Without a Mahram, the journey is forbidden whether the journey is by air or by any other means.
(i) If a woman is eligible to perform Hajj with the necessary means to do so but cannot find a Mahram, she is not allowed to perform it.
ii) If a wife wishes to perform Hajj with a Mahram (such as son) then the husband cannot prevent her from performing Hajj.
Ihram for Women
(i) It is obligatory for women to cover the head.
(ii) Stitched cloth is allowed.
(iii) Any colour dress is allowed.
On Menstrual Days It is reported by Hazrat Aishah that once on a Hajj Pilgrimage when she experience the inconvenience of monthly period, the Holy Prophet (Pbuh) noticing her inconvenience said: “There is no need to cry. This is something that Allah has made as a natural occurrence for daughters of Adam (Pbuh), meaning all women.” Most scholars are of the opinion that purification is not necessary for performing Sa’i between Safa and Marwah, in the light of what the Prophet (Pbuh) said to ‘Aishah once when she menstruated. He told her. “You may perform all rites (of Hajj) as other pilgrims do, except performing tawaf around the Ka’bah which you may do after you are clean and no longer menstruating.” ‘Aishah and Ummi Salamah said: “A woman who performs the tawaf, offers two rak’ah prayer (by the Station of Ibrahim), and then finds that her period has started, may perform Sa’i between Safa and Marwah.” It is preferable, however, to be in a state of complete purity while performing various rites of Hajj or ‘Umrah, because cleanliness is commendable in Islam.
* It is permissible for woman to enter the state of Ihram in case she has experienced menstrual period or child birth by performing the ghusl (obligatory bath) and making the niyat (intention) of Hajj or Umrah. She will have to recite “Labbaik, Allahumma Lubaik, La Shareeka Lak, Innal Hamda, Wannaymata Lak, Walmulk, La Shareeka Lak. This is enough for her to enter the state of Ihram.
* She may not offer the two rak’ats nafil salat of Ihram until she is fully clean and performed the obligatory ghusl. (bath).
* After Ihram she may perform the duties of Arafat, Muzdalifa and Mina.
* She may not perform tawaf in this state after reaching Makkah.
* She may pray and recite Istaghfar and all other duas.
* If a woman fears that she may begin to menstruate she may perform the Tawaf Al-Ifadah early on the day of Nahr - 10th of Dhul-Hajjah as a precaution against the menses.
* If a woman (Pilgrim) is afraid of her monthly period, she may perform the Tawaf of Ka’bah before throwing the pebbles at Jamarah Al Aqabah and even before her sacrificial animal is slaughtered.
* Women may touch and kiss the Black Stone when there is an opportunity and no men are around. It is reported that ‘Aishah said to a woman, “Do not crowd with others at the Black Stone, but if you find a chance, touch and kiss it, otherwise if there is crowding, then say a takbir (Allah is the Greatest) when you are opposite to it, and make your tawaf and do not cause any harm to anyone.”
* Staying at Arafah means physical and mental presence in any part of Arafah, whether one is awake, asleep, riding, sitting, lying down, walking, and regardless of whether one is in a state of purity or not, e.g., a menstruating woman.
* There is consensus on throwing pebbles before midnight on the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah (the Night of Sacrifice). It is permissible, however, for women, children, the weak, those who have a valid excuse, to throw pebbles at Jamarah Al-Aqabah in the night.
* Persons who for valid reasons, illness, etc., cannot themselves throw the pebbles may ask someone else to throw pebbles on their behalf. Jabir said, “We performed Hajj with the Prophet (Pbuh) and we had some women and children with us. We (adults) uttered talbiyah and threw pebbles on behalf of the children.” This was reported by Ibn Majah.
* Abu Daw’ud and others reported from Ibn’ Abbas that the Prophet (Pbuh) said, “Women (Pilgrims) do not have to shave (their heads); they may only shorten their hair.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “when a woman (Pilgrim) wants to cut off her hair, she may hold her hair at the front and cut it of about the length of the tip of a finger.”
The Faraaidh of Hajj
Hajj has Three fundamental Fardh (compulsory) acts, viz.,
(1) Ihraam: Making Niyyat with the heart for Hajj and reciting Talbiyah, i.e.
Labbayk Allahumma labbayk. Labbayka laa sharika laka labbayk. Innal hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-mulk. Laa shareeka lak.
(2) Wuqoof at Arafaat: This wuqoof (stay-over) at Arafaat is on the 9th Zil Hijj at any time from after zawaal. (3) Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat: This is the Tawaaf which is made at any time from dawn on the 10th Zil Hijj until 12th Zil Hijj after the head is shaved or the hair cut.
If any one of these three Fardh acts is omitted, the Hajj is not valid. Omission of any of these acts cannot be compensated for by means of sacrificing an animal, etc. Should any one of these three Fardh acts be omitted, the Hajj becomes qadhaa, i.e. it will have to be performed again.
The Waajibaat of Hajj.
Six acts are Waajib in Hajj.
To stop over at Muzdalifah at the time of Wuqoof, i.e. during the night of the 10th Zil Hijj.
To make Sayee between Safa and Marwah.
Rami of the Jimaar, i.e. to strike the pebbles at the Jamraat.
Qurbaani, (sacrifice) if the Haji is a Qaarin or Mutamatti’.
Halq (shaving the head) or Qasr (cutting the hair).
Tawaaf-e-Widaa (The Farewell Tawaaf) for those living outside the Meeqaat.
If a Waajib act is omitted, the Hajj is still valid, but compensation has to be offered whether the omission is deliberately or by error. Sometimes the, jaza (i.e. the compensation) is Dum (an animal) and sometimes it is Sadqah.
The Mustahabbaat of Hajj
Men have to recite the Talbiyah audibly.
Reciting the Talbiyah in abundance.
Qurbaani (sacrificing an animal) by the Mufrid.
To take ghusl at the time of entering Makkah Mukarramah.
To stop near to Jabal-e-Rahmat in Arafaat if there is no congestion.
To perform Zuhr and Asr Salaat together in Arafaat with Jamaat.
During the duration of Wuqoof at Arafaat to recite Talbiyah and make dua in abundance.
To halt at Mash’ar-e- Haraam during Fajr (morning) of the Day of Arafaat.
To perform Fajr Salaat at Muzdalifah.
To make Tawaaf -e-Ziyaarat on 10th Zil Hijj.
Mustahab is an act which is highly meritorious. Its thawaab is great. However, omission of Mustahab acts is not sinful. But, this does not mean that one should be neglectful in regard to the Mustahabbaat.
The Makruhaat of Hajj
Makruh acts are reprehensible and the thawaab of the Hajj is reduced by the perpetration of Makruh acts. The Hajj becomes defective by the commission of Makruh acts. Deliberate perpetration of Makruh acts is sinful. However, Makruh acts will not invalidate the Hajj. Among the prohibitions, only sexual intercourse which has been committed prior to the Wuqoof of Arafaat. The following things are Makruh:
The Imaam reciting the Khutbah before zawaal on the Day of Arafaat.
After performing both Salaats together in Masjid Namrah, to remain long outside the limits of Arafaat.
To depart from Arafaat before or after the Imaam.
To make the Rami with pebbles obtained from near to the Jimaar or with pebbles of the Masjid or to break a big stone into bits and use the pieces for pelting.
When terminating the Ihraam of Hajj or Umrah to shave only one quarter of the head or to cut hair from only a quarter of the head.
During the days of Mina, to spend the nights in Makkah.
To make Wuqoof of Muzdalifah in Wadi Muhassar.
Prohibitions of Ihraam
The following acts are prohibited during the state of Ihraam:
Sexual intercourse as well as all sex-play and acts and talks of romance. Quarrelling and fighting.
Hunting land animals.
To inform a hunter of the whereabouts of an animal.
To aid a hunter in anyway whatever.
To chase a wild animal.
To break an egg of a wild bird.
To injure any wild animal, even removing its feathers.
To sell wild animals.
To purchase wild animals.
To remove the milk of a wild animal.
To kill lice.
To throw lice in the heat of the sun.
To wash clothing with the intention of killing lice.
To instruct another person, directly or indirectly, to kill lice.
To dye one’s hair.
To use gum or any kind of hair conditioner.
To apply perfume.
To cut hair and nails or to ask another person to cut one’s hair and nails. To cover the face or any part of the face.
To wear sewn garments, e.g. kurtah, trousers, topee, etc.
To wear garments which have been dyed in saffron, kusum or any fragrant substances. However, if the garments so dyed have been thoroughly washed, leaving no fragrance, it will then be permissible to wear such garments.
Errors in Hajj and Kaffaarah
Errors which happen during Hajj are called Jinaayaat. There are two types of jinaayaat:
Omission of the Waajib acts of Hajj.
Commission of the Hajj prohibitions.
The prohibitions of Hajj are of two kinds:
The prohibitions of Ihraam.
The prohibitions of the Haram Shareef (the Holy Place).
Nine errors pertain to Ihraam and two errors to Haram. Thus, there are altogether eleven errors regarding the prohibitions of Hajj. These are as follows:
To apply perfume.
For men to wear sewn clothes.
To cover the head and face.
To remove lice from one’s body.
To kill lice.
To remove hair from the body.
To cut nails.
To indulge in sexual relationship.
To hunt or molest game (wild animals on land).
To hunt in the Holy Precincts.
To cut the grass or trees of the Haram.
Principles Governing the Errors
There are several principles governing the errors committed. These will now be explained to facilitate better understanding of the errors. First Principle: There are four ways in which the prohibitions of Hajj are committed:
The prohibition is committed fully but because of a valid reason.
The prohibition is committed partially but because of a valid reason.
The prohibition is committed fully but without valid reason.
The prohibition is committed partially but without valid reason.
The Hukm (effect and rule) of each of these four ways of commission is different. The ruling applicable to each one is as follows:
If the prohibition was committed fully, but because of a valid reason, Dum or Fasting or Sadqah becomes Waajib.
If the prohibition was committed partially, but because of a valid reason, either Fasting or Sadqah is Waajib.
If the prohibition was committed fully, but without valid reason, only Dum is Waajib. In this case there is no choice.
If the prohibition was committed partially, but without valid reason, only Sadqah is Waajib. Again, here is no choice.
Second Principle:Dum is one goat or one sheep or a seventh share of a cow or camel.
Thrid Principle: A whole cow or a whole camel is incumbent on only two occasions, as follows:
Making Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarat in the state of Hadth-e-Akbar, i.e. the greater impurity or janaabat.
To indulge in sexual intercourse after Wuqoof-e-Arafaat, but before shaving the head.
Fourth Principle: All conditions and requirements applicable to Qurbaani animals apply to the Dum animals as well.
Fifth Principle: Sadqah in this context is half a Saa’ (approximately 2.5 kg.) of wheat or the amount which is usually paid as Fitrah.
Sixth Principle : The Qaarin who commits jinaayaat in Ihraam before making Umrah is liable for two penalties since he is in two states of Ihraam. The Mufrid is liable for one penalty since he is in the state of one Ihraam. However, if the Qaarin entered the Meeqaat limits without Ihraam, only one Dum will be Waajib on him.
Seventh Principle : Regarding the jinaayaat of the Haram and in the penalty pertaining to game on land, there is a choice of three ways of discharging the penalty. These are:
The wild animal is to be valued and if a sacrificial animal (Dum) is available for this value or price, an animal will be purchased and slaughtered. This amount may be given in charity.
One may fast instead.
Any one of these three penalties will suffice. If the option of fasting is chosen, one should consult an Alim for ascertaining the method of calculating the number of fasts to be kept. This number differs.
Eighth Principle: Kaffaarah (penalty or compensation) is obligatory even if a prohibition of Ihraam is committed on account of a valid reason.
Ninth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted without valid reason, penalty is incumbent.
Tenth Principle: If any act among the Waajibaat of Hajj is omitted on account of valid reason, penalty is not obligatory.
Eleventh Principle: penalty is not incumbent on a minor nor on an insane person. However, if one became insane after having entered the state of Ihraam and later regained sanity, then penalty is obligatory for any omission of Waajib acts which had occurred.
Twelveth Principle: If one is unable to discharge the penalty immediately, payment at a later date will be valid.
Deliberate commission of jinaayaat is a grave and major sin.
Hajj is not accepted if jinaayaat are committed deliberately.
Discharging the penalty of Jinaayaat does not set one free from the sin. After payment of the penalty it is essential to make taubah (repent) and seek forgiveness from Allah Ta’ala.
In the following cases of omission, Dum will be Waajib: * If the Rami of all four days is omitted.
* The whole Rami of any one day is omitted.
*The majority of the pebbles of a day is omitted, e.g. four pebbles on the 10th Zil Hijj were omitted or eleven pebbles of any other day.
In the following cases of omission, the full Sadqah is Waajib for every pebble omitted:
* On the 10th Zil Hijj, three or less pebbles were omitted.
* On the other days (11th,12th,13th), ten or less pebbles were omitted.
If the total amount of the Sadqah for all the pebbles omitted is equal to the price of a Dum, then Sadqah slightly less than the price of a Dum should be given.
Rituals of Hajj and Umrah
Hajj is one of the best forms of worship and is one of the most sublime deeds because it is one of the pillars of Islam that Allah sent Muhammad(may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)with. A form of worship is only acceptable when the following is true.
1. One devotes it to Allah alone, with a desire for the Hereafter. It cannot be done with the intention of being seen among men or for worldly gain.
2. One follows the Prophet’s (Pbuh) example, in words deeds. This cannot be accomplished without the knowledge of the Sunnah.
Forms of Pilgrimage
There are three forms of Hajj:
Tamattu’: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Umrah only during the months of Hajj, which means when he reaches Makkah, he makes Tawaf and Sa’yi for Umrah. He then shaves or clips his hair. On the day of Tarwiya, which is the eighth of Dhul-Hijja, he puts on his Ihram for Hajj only and carries out all of its requirements.
Ifraad: A pilgrim wears Ihram for Hajj only. When he reaches Makkah, he performs Tawaf for his arrival and Sa’yi for Hajj. He doesn’t shave or clip his hair as he doesn’t disengage from Ihram. Instead, he remains in Ihram till after he stones Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day. It is permissible for him to postpone his Sa’yi for Hajj until after his Tawaf for Hajj.
Qiran: A pilgrim wears Ihram for both Umrah and Hajj or he wears Ihram first for Umrah, then makes intentions for Hajj before his Tawaf for Hajj. The obligations on one performing Ifraad are the same as those on one performing Qiran, except that the latter must slaughter whereas the former is not obligated to do so. The best of the three forms is Tamattu’. It is the form that the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) encouraged his followers to perform. Even if a pilgrim makes intentions to perform Qiran or Ifraad he is allowed to change his intentions to Tamattu’; he can do this even after he has performed Tawaf and Sa’yi.
When the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) performed Tawaf and Sa’yi during the year of the Farewell Hajj with his companions, he ordered all those who hadn’t brought sacrificial animals to change their intentions for Hajj to intentions for Umrah. cut their hair, and disengage from Ihram till Hajj. He said, “ If I hadn’t brought the sacrificial animal, I’d have done what I’ve ordered you to do.”
*If a pilgrim wishes to be ritually pure for Umrah, he should shed his clothing and bathe as he would after sexual defilement, if convenient. Bathing for Ihram is Sunnah for both men and women, including menstruating women and those experiencing post-natal bleeding. After bathing and preparing himself/herself, a. pilgrim, other than those menstruating or experiencing post-natal bleeding, prays the obligatory prayer, if it is time. Otherwise, he makes his intention by praying the two Sunnah Rakats which are made each time Wudhu is performed.
*When he finishes his prayer he should say: “Here I am for Umrah, here I am, Oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is yours, and you have no partner.” [Talbeeyah].
A man raises his voice when saying this and a woman says it so that only one beside her may hear her.
*One in Ihram should say the Talbeeyah as often as possible, especially when times and places change. For example: when descending or ascending during travel or when day or night approach. He should also ask Allah for His pleasure, for Heaven and seek refuge in Allah’s mercy from Hellfire.
*One should say the Talbeeyah during Umrah, starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts Tawaf. During Hajj he should say it starting from the time he puts on his Ihram till he starts to stone Jamrah Al-Aqaba on the Eid day.
*When a pilgrim enters the Holy Mosque, he puts forth his right foot first and says: “In the name of Allah, may peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Oh Allah, forgive me my sins and open to me the doors of Your mercy. I seek refuge in Allah the Almighty and in His Eminent Face and in His Eternal Dominion from the accursed Satan.”
*He approaches the Black Stone, touches it with his right hand and kisses it. If this isn’t possible, he should face the Black Stone and point to it. It is best not to push and shove, causing harm and being harmed by other people.
*When touching the Stone, a pilgrim should say the following: “In the name of Allah, Allah is the greatest. Oh, Allah, with faith in you, belief in Your book, loyalty to you, compliance to the way of your Prophet Muhammad (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).”
*A pilgrim must walk, keeping the Ka’bah on his left. When he reaches the Rukn Al Yamani he should touch, but not kiss it, and say: “ Our Lord, grant us good in this life and good in the hereafter and save us from the punishment of the Hell fire. Oh Allah, I beg of You for forgiveness and health in this life and in the Hereafter.”
Each time he passes the Black Stone he should say: “Allah is the Greatest.”
*During the remainder of his Tawaf he may say what he pleases of supplications, mentioning Allah, and recitation of Quran. This is because Tawaf, Sa’yi, and Stoning the Jamrah have been devised for the purpose of mentioning Allah.
During this Tawaf it is necessary for a man to do two things:
1. Al-ldhtebaa’ from the beginning of Tawaf until the end. Al-ldhtebaa’ means placing the middle of one’s Reda’ under his right arm and the ends of it over his left shoulder.
When he is finished performing Tawaf, he may return his Reda’ to its original state because the time for Idhtebaa’ is only during Tawaf.
2. Al-Raml during the first three circuits. Al-Raml means speeding up one’s pace with small steps. A pilgrim should walk at a normal pace during his last four circuits.
*When he completes seven circuits of Tawaf, he approaches Maqam Ibrahim and recites: “And take ye the station of Abraham as a place of Prayer” Chapter 2, Verse 125 [2:125].
He prays two short Rakats, as close as conveniently possible, behind Maqam Ibrahim. During the first Rakat, he recites Surah Al-Kafirun [Chapter 109] and during the second one Surah Al-lkhlas[Chapter 112].
*When he completes the two Rakaas he should return to the Black Stone and touch it, if convenient. He goes out to the Mesa’a and when he nears As-Safaa he recites: “ Verily As-Safaa and Al-Marwah are among the shrines of Allah “ [2:158].
*He ascends As-Safaa until he is able to see the Ka’bah. Facing the Ka’bah and raising his hands, he praises Allah and makes any supplications he chooses. The Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: “There is no Deity but Allah alone,” three times, supplicating in between.
*He descends As-Safaa and heads for Al-Marwah at a normal pace until he reaches the green marker. He should then run fast until the next green marker. He continues towards Al-Marwah at a normal pace. When he reaches it, he ascends it, faces the Qibla, raises his hands and repeats what he said on As-Safaa. He descends Al-Marwah heading towards As-Safaa, taking care to walk where walking is designated, and run where running is designated.
*He continues this procedure until he completes seven laps. Going from As-Safaa to Al-Marwah is a lap and returning is another lap. During his Sa’yi he may recite what he wills of supplications, recitation of Qur’an, and mentioning Allah.
*In completion of Sa’yi he shaves his head. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger tip. Shaving is preferable, except when Hajj is near and there isn’t sufficient time for hair to grow back. In this case it’s best to clip so that hair will remain for shaving during Hajj.
With that, Umrah is completed. and a pilgrim is free to dress in other clothing.
*In the forenoon of the eighth day of Dhul-Hijja, a pilgrim purifies himself once again by bathing as he did before Umrah in the place in which he is staying, if convenient. He puts on his Ihram and says: “ Here I am for Hajj. Here I am, oh Allah, here I am. Here I am. You have no partner. Here I am. Surely all praise, grace and dominion is yours, and you have no partners.”
*If he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj he should make a condition when he makes his intentions, saying: “ If I am prevented by any obstacle my place is wherever I am held up.” If he has no such fear, he doesn’t make this condition.
*A pilgrim goes to Mina and there prays Zuhr, Asr, Magrib, Isha and Fajr, shortening his four unit prayers so as to make them two units each, without combining them.
*When the sun rises, he goes to Arafah and there prays Zuhr and Asr combined at the time of Zuhr, making each one two units. He remains in Namira Mosque until sunset if possible. He remembers Allah and makes as many supplications as possible while facing the Qibla.
The Prophet (may the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) prayed thus: “There is no Deity but Allah alone. He has no partner. All dominion and praise are His and He is powerful over all things.
*If he grows weary, it is permissible for him to engage in beneficial conversation with his companions or reading what he can find of beneficial books, especially those concerning Allah’s grace and abundant gifts. This will strengthen his hope in Allah.
He should then return to his supplications and be sure to spend the end of the day deep in supplication because the best of supplication is the supplication of the day of Arafah.
*At sunset, he goes from Arafah to Muzdalifah and there prays Magrib, Isha, and Fajr. If he is tired or has little water, it is permissible for him to combine Magrib and Isha. He remains there, in Muzdalifah, making supplications and remembering Allah till just before sunrise.
*Near sunrise, a pilgrim goes from Muzdalifah to Mina. Upon reaching it, he does the following:
a) He throws seven consecutive pebbles at Jamrah Al-Aqaba saying Allahu Akbar.
b) He slaughters the sacrificial animal, eats some of it, and gives some to the poor.
c) He shaves or clips his hair; shaving is preferable. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger tip.
*With that, one is allowed to come out of Ihram. He can wear other clothing and do everything that was lawful before Ihram except engaging in marital relations.
*He goes to Makkah to perform Tawaf Al-lfadha and Sa’yi, also for Hajj.
*With the completion of this Tawaf and Sa’yi, a pilgrim is allowed to do everything that was lawful before Ihram, including engaging in marital relations.
*After performing Tawaf and Sa’yi, he returns to Mina to spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth days there.
*He stones the three Jamrahs in the afternoon of both the eleventh and twelfth days. He starts with the first Jamrah, then the middle one, and lastly Jamrah Al-Aqaba. Each one should be stoned with seven consecutive pebbles accompanied by Takbeer. He stops after the first and middle Jamrah to make supplications facing the Qibla. It is not permissible to stone before noon on these two days. It is best to walk to the Jamrah, but riding is permissible.
*If he is in a hurry after stoning on the twelfth day, he leaves Mina before sunset. But if he wishes to prolong his stay, he spends the night of the thirteenth in Mina and stones that afternoon in the same manner as on the twelfth day.
*When he is ready to return to his country, he makes Tawaf Al-Widaa, which is seven circuits around the Ka’bah. Menstruating women and women experiencing post-natal discharge are not obligated to perform Tawaf Al-Widaa.
Visiting the Prophet’s (Pbuh) Mosque
1. A pilgrim goes to Madinah before or after Hajj with the intention of visiting the Prophet’s mosque and praying in it.
2. Upon reaching the mosque he prays two Rakats of salutation or performs any obligatory prayer that is due.
3. He goes to the grave of the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and he stands before it. He greets him saying the “ May the peace, mercy, and blessings of Allah be upon you, oh Prophet. May Allah grant you a good reward on behalf of your people. “
He takes a step or two to his right to position himself before Hazrath Abu-Bakr’s (RA) grave and greets him saying : “May the peace, mercy, and blessing of Allah be upon you. oh Abu-Bakr, Caliph of the Messenger of Allah. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.”
Then he takes a step or two to his right to position himself before Hazrath Umar’s (RA) grave and greets him saying: “ May the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you, oh Umar, Prince of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.”
4. In a state of purity, he goes to pray in Qubaa Mosque.
5. He goes to Al-Baqee to visit Hazrath Uthman’s grave (may Allah be pleased with him). He stands before it and greets him saying: “May the peace, mercy and blessing of Allah be upon you, oh Uthman Prince of the believers. May Allah be pleased with you and grant you a good reward on behalf of Muhammad’s people.” He greets any other Muslims in Al-Baqee.
6. He goes to Uhud and visits the grave of Hazrath Hamza (may Allah be pleased with him) and the other martyrs there with him. He greets them and prays to Allah to grant them forgiveness, mercy, and pleasure.
Q. What should women wear or not wear over their outer garments
during the period of ihraam, or consecration in pilgrimage?
A. A woman in ihraam or consecration wears all her normal clothes. She is only required to leave her face and hands uncovered. She may not cover these while she is in ihraam.
Too Weak to do Sa'ie
Q. My wife and I intend to perform the pilgrimage, but she is very weak and cannot walk for a long distance. We are Allah willing, going to do the pilgrimage in the tamattu method. So we want to perform the Umrah now and travel to Mina directly for pilgrimage. Is this permissible?
A.The tamattu method is the one preferred by the Prophet for all Muslims. It involves doing the Umrah and pilgrimage separately, starting with Umrah which includes ihraam, tawaf, sa’ie and shortening one’s hair or shaving one’s head. One releases oneself from ihraam immediately afterwards and then re-enters ihraam on the 8th of Thul Hajjah for pilgrimage. As such, the rituals of each major duty are done separately. Therefore you have to do saie for Umrah and another for pilgrimage. This however should not cause your wife any great trouble with the facilities available in the Haram. If she cannot do the saie herself, especially after the tawaf of ifadah, when the place is over-crowded, she could use a wheel chair. You could either push the wheel chair yourself in the passage specially provided for the purpose or ask someone to push it for you. You could also use the first floor which is less crowded.
As for tawaf, you could do it on the second floor. The distance there is much longer, but you can again use a wheelchair. The time needed for this tawaf will not be much longer than if you do it at the ground level, because of the overcrowding there. She can start by walking whatever distance she can manage herself and use a wheelchair when she is tired. In her condition, she cannot do the stoning herself. It is better if she asks you to do it on her behalf. When you have finished stoning for each jamrah yourself, you do it again on behalf of your wife. This way, you reduce the physical effort which may be troublesome to your wife. I pray that both of you will be able to do the pilgrimage in comfort. May I just remind you that doing the pilgrimage in the tamattu method requires each of you to sacrifice a sheep in gratitude to Allah.